On Premise Microsoft Native Hadoop Like Data Sandbox

I'm exploring options to create an on-premise data warehouse solution using native Microsoft SQL Server tooling. This warehouse will need to run in a disconnected mode and won't have access to the cloud. Using SQL Server tooling, what's a good approach to provide data analyst a data sandbox? The sandbox would allow an analyst to isolate their own version of relational data, integrate their own data from sources like Excel and other structured datasets, along with lightweight uses of unstructured data such as a text file, and perform basic analysis. My research isn't yielding any great (or any) solutions, so I might be looking in the wrong areas.

Any tips, advise or direction is greatly appreciated!